Newborn baby – acquaintance
A newborn is a child in first 28 days (first 4 weeks of life) from the moment of birth. This time he spends between eating and sleeping, practically not honoring his mother’s attention and not distinguishing the day from the night. His body is incredibly vulnerable in this period, so he especially needs attention from his parents. The main need of a small person in the first month of life is physical contact with mother, warmth and mother’s milk.
The first month of life is the time of adaptation to new conditions, when physical development goes incredibly fast. The baby for nine months developed in the mother’s tummy, protected from the external environment, now he needs to adapt to a new way of breathing, blood circulation, food, and too harsh for the newborn visual, auditory and tactile sensations.
The baby’s muscles are weak even after birth, even so that he can hold the head on his own. Often, small fingers are clenched into fists, and the cams themselves are tightly pressed to body. Sometimes the kid has a muscle twitching – this is normal, the increased tone disappears about the three month after birth. At the age of up to one month you can see the so-called reflexes of newborn children, two of them are especially pronounced: swallowing and sucking.
There is nothing better to feed the newly born baby than the mother’s milk. After all, it contains all the necessary nutrients and vitamins, and therefore is ideal for feeding a newborn. Moreover, the maternal breast is a calming factor for the child’s psyche, and therefore it is necessary to adhibit to baby’s chest almost every time if child will cry. Since the stomach of the crumbs is still very small, it is necessary to feed it quite often, approximately every 3 hours. As the rate of growth of a newborn is very high, the application to the breast per day will decrease.
Earlier adhibit to the breast allows the child to feel the maternal warmth, gives a sense of security. Beginning breastfeeding, take a comfortable position and try to relax. A low chair is quite fit. The process itself should be pleasant, without causing the mother any discomforting sensations – neither in the back, nor in breasts.
Symptoms of improper attachment to the breasts are sounds during feeding – smacking, champing, clicks, which can lead to swallowing of air. In fact, there is nothing particularly frightening in the fact that the child swallowed the air when feeding. If this happens, hold it for a while in an upright position (a bar) until the air that has gotten inside out.
Do not give the baby to drink milk too quickly, it provokes colic and bloating, which causes the baby to cry, twitch the handles, legs, arching the back. You can help stroking the abdomen clockwise.
Dear mom, please note that sometimes a newborn spews after feeding. This is due to the fact that together with milk the air got into the body. To avoid this, learn how to adhibit child when feeding. Here are the basic rules, the implementation of which allows you to properly feeding:
- To feed a newborn child should begin immediately after his birth, i.e. in the first half hour of life. If the baby is correctly placed on the mother’s belly, he will find the breast and begin to suck. Remember, as the first time the baby will attach to your breast during feeding, so, most likely, will eat in the future.
- It is important to learn how to properly apply to the breast: when sucking, it is necessary to capture not only the nipple, but also the areola. At the same time, the child’s chin should touch the breast of the mother, his mouth is slightly open.
Sleep of a baby
Never put the child on his back, but only on his side! If the baby has a vomiting, in the position on the back, it can suffocate, and this threatens a fatal outcome.
How much should a newborn baby sleep? The daily duration of sleep is approximately 16-18 hours. At this age, children do not particularly distinguish between day and night, so the sleep regime is evenly distributed in portions for day and night.
Patronage of the newborn
To check the health of the baby in the first month of his life, you should see a pediatrician at least 2 times a week. If the doctor or nurse does not come, you should call the polyclinic in which the baby assigned. In the following months, parents take the child to the clinic for examination at the place of residence themselves, but in the beginning the doctor must come to the house.
Bathing and hygiene
The tender and very sensitive skin of the baby requires daily, careful care. It is necessary to systematically perform cleansing of the skin after it is do a crap or when you perform a diaper substitution, in order to avoid irritation. Cleansing skin can be under the tap water from a tap with a temperature of 99 oF. Also use wet baby napkins that moisturize the skin and maintain a neutral pH balance. These are the main rules for the prevention of diaper dermatitis:
- Compliance with the usual rules of hygiene;
- Maintaining the skin in a dry and clean condition;
- Care when replacing a diaper.
To the kid, as well as to the adult person, it is necessary to washing every day. Perform this procedure in the morning, after you have fed baby. Unlike an adult, a newborn baby washes with a cotton swab, previously moistened in boiled water to room temperature. Light, blotting movements are carried out around the eyes from the outer corner to the inner corner. Nose clean with cotton-wool sticks on a plastic base. Ears – cotton wool or plastic cotton buds with a stop. In the ears should not climb deep inside, and clean only what is on the edges. A wooden stick is dangerous, because it can break down and stay inside. When cleaning the ears, make sure that water does not get inside. If there are dry crusts in the nose, the cotton bud is slightly moistened with a baby’s saline solution or buried in a drop to each nostril.
When changing clothes, pay attention to the skin, if there is any redness or rash. If you suddenly found purulent foci on the body, urgently see a doctor, since it is a sign of a serious illness.
In addition, children’s hygiene is to maintain cleanliness under the nails. They begin to cut off only from the third week of life baby. Scissors should be:
- Allowing to exclude injury.
If the fingernails are too long at the time of birth, so that the child does not scratch himself, wear a blouse with covered sleeves or special children’s gloves.
Since immediately after discharge from the maternity hospital, my mother is still too weak and not fully recovered, during the first bathing of the baby she will need the help of relatives, especially the pope. In order not to catch a cold, all you need after bathing, prepare in advance:
- A jacket;
- Baby’s loose jacket;
Buy a special baby bath, and before bathing every time, wash it thoroughly and pour it over with boiling water. The temperature of the bathing water is 100 oF, and the air temperature in the room where this procedure takes place is not less than 75 oF. In order not to err with the temperature, use separate thermometers for air and water.
Immersion in water
The first bathing of the newborn begins gradually, plunging it into the water slowly, so as not to frighten. The process of ablution is always necessary to accompany with gentle, affectionate words, to talk with the child, then bathing will cause only positive emotions. During bathing, keep the child’s head with one hand and wash with other. Of course, it is better to visit both parents, as children during the bathing are worried, spinning and turning. Pay attention: when washing your head, you need to do this carefully, except for water and soap in the eyes, nose or mouth. After bathing, rinse the baby, putting it on his belly on the palm.
After water procedures wrap the child in a soft towel. To prevent injuries, dry the skin with towel movements, don’t rub it in any way. And to prevent diaper rash, thoroughly dry and all the wrinkles on the body. Don’t be afraid to wipe your ears, but do it best with special baby napkins from cotton wool.
As you know, at the time of birth, the baby is cut off by the umbilical cord that connected it with the mother’s body. Therefore, in the first days of life on the body of the newborn there is an “Achilles’ heel”, remainder of the umbilical cord, which should fall off within 2 weeks. It is very important to carefully monitor it and regularly handle it. At first, this done by the visiting nurse in the maternity hospital. When the mother leaves to home, she should already watch. The umbilical cord is treated 2-3 times a day, for which take a disposable cotton swab dipped in a solution of hydrogen peroxide.
If the treatment reveals serous and spotting discharge, and even more so yellowish-green pus, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.
To strengthen the children’s body you need outdoor walks. Begin this procedure should be gradually, each time increasing the time spent in the fresh air.
In the winter, walk carefully, avoiding hypothermia. Use a special children’s envelope or a warm blanket. Don’t forget to touch the baby’s nose from time to time. The first sign of hypothermia is a cold nose.
When the window is hot summer weather, there is another danger – overheating. Children have a weak thermoregulation and cope with overheating it is as difficult as with hypothermia. Don’t allow situations where a newborn baby exposed to direct sunlight for a long time. Provide him with access to fresh air and take care of protection from insects.